Selected Readings

Read more about Aboriginal-settler interactions in New Brunswick in selected journal articles.

Eighteenth-Century Treaties: The Mi'maq, Maliseet and Passamaquoddy Experience
Patterson, Stephen E., in Native Studies Review 18, no. 1 (2009): 25-52.
This article places the various eighteenth-century treaties that the Mi'kmaq and Maliseet (Wolastoqiyik) signed with the British in their cultural and political context. Patterson argues that the treaties were a process by which the Natives negotiated themselves a position within a changing political and economic environment characterized by French retreat and British encroachment, and that the treaties signed in 1760-61 formed the basis of future Native and White relations
A Commercial Harvesting Prosecution in Context: The Peter Paul Case, 1946
Bell, D. G., in University of New Brunswick Law Journal 55 (2006): 86-104.
This article examines the case of Peter Paul, a Maliseet (Wolastoqiyik) man convicted of illegally harvesting ash saplings in 1946. Bell argues that this case brought to the forefront the long history of white encroachment on Native land and denial of Native treaty rights. The Paul case, Bell contends, affirmed the governmental policy of Native legal dispossession. With the help of his advisor Edwin Tappan Adney, Paul made the first attempt to argue in a legal context that New Brunswick Natives retained their treaty rights. Bell argues that Paul should have appealed the decision, not because it would have succeeded, but because it would have created a legal precedent.
Indian Lands in New Brunswick: The Case of the Little South West Reserve
Hamilton, W. D., in Acadiensis XIII, no. 2 (1984): 3-28.
This article examines the history of New Brunswick Native policy through the prism of the (mis)management of the Red Bank reserve. Awarded to Chief John Julian in the 1760s the original claim was reduced by the arrival of the Loyalists in the 1780s, and by Julian's descendants in the early nineteenth century who sought to profit personally by renting reserve land to settlers and lumber interests. In doing so they were aided by the lack of a formal Native policy in Fredericton, and the desire of the colonial government to profit from selling reserve land. Hamilton argues that the result was much of the original grant ending up in the hands of white settlers, and the legitimacy of many of the claims on land in the Red Bank reserve becoming confused and open to question.
Indian Affairs in Colonial New Brunswick
Upton, L. F. S., in Acadiensis III, no. 2 (1974): 3-26.
This article examines the evolution of "Indian Policy" in New Brunswick in the early to mid nineteenth century. Upton argues that New Brunswick lacked a cohesive Native policy, and showed only sporadic interest in the affairs and welfare of its Native people. Something close to a policy began to emerge in the 1840s when the colonial government began a policy of renting reserved land to fund Native education and settlement, but these efforts quickly disintegrated into a race to sell off large portions of reserved land to white squatters for the profit of the colonial government. Upton argues that the Natives of New Brunswick were without the constitutional framework, government structures, and missionary allies that acted as a safeguard to Native interests in many other British North American colonies, and thus were susceptible to the whim of the state and predatory squatters. That the reserve system survived at all was due to their having been reduced to the least agriculturally desirable land, thus warding off further squatter incursion.
The New England Company and the New Brunswick Indians, 1786-1826: A Comment on the Colonial Perversion of British Benevolence
Fingard, Judith, in Acadiensis I, no. 2 (1972): 29-42.
This article examines the actions and motivations of the New England Company in New Brunswick. Although ostensibly a charitable body dedicated to improving the lives and habits of the Natives through the education of their children, Fingard argues that the Company was motivated more by the political consideration of making the Natives 'loyal' Anglicized Protestants. Even these efforts were hampered by corruption among the Company's agents and resistance among Natives to sending their children to Company schools.