Loyalist Women in New Brunswick, 1783-1827: Further Reading

Further Reading

Interested in pursuing the history of Loyalist women in New Brunswick? Browse our bibliography of selected print and online resources.

Primary sources

"The Narrative of Mary Fisher in the Grandmother's Story." In Collections of the New Brunswick Historical Society, 1919-1929. Saint John, N.B: Carnes and Company Ltd., 1930.

Bates, Walter and W. O. Raymond, eds. Kingston and the Loyalists of the "Spring Fleet" of 1783: With reminiscences of early days in Connecticut / by Walter Bates; to which is appended a diary written by Sarah Frost on her voyage to Saint John, New Brunswick, with the loyalists of 1783. Woodstock, N.B.: Non-Entity Press, 1980/1999.

Coldham, Peter Wilson. American Migrations, 1765-1799: The Lives, Times, and Families of Colonial Americans Who Remained Loyal to the British Crown before, During, and after the Revolutionary War, as Related in Their Own Words and through Their Correspondence. Baltimore: Genealogical Pub. Co., 2000.

Conrad, Margaret, Toni Laidlaw, and Donna Smyth, eds. No Place Like Home: The Diaries and Letters of Nova Scotia Women, 1771-1938. Halifax: Formac, 1988.

Gorham, R. P. The Narrative of Hannah Ingraham: Loyalist Colonist at St. Anne's Point, October 1783. Typescript. University of New Brunswick Archives and Special Collections, 1933.

Hulton, Ann. Letters of a Loyalist Lady: Being the Letters of Ann Hulton, Sister of Henry Hulton, Commissioner of Customs at Boston, 1767-1776, 1779. Reprint. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1927.

Hunter, Anne and Elizabeth Bell, eds. The Journal of General Sir Martin Hunter and Some Letters of His Wife, Lady Hunter. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Press, 1894.

Innis, Mary Quayle, ed. Mrs. Simcoe's Diary. Toronto: MacMillan, 1965.

MacNutt, W. S. Select Loyalist Memorials: The Appeals for Compensation for Losses and Sacrifices to the British Parliamentary Commission of 1783 to 1789 from Loyalist of the American Revolution who came to Canada. Typescript. University of New Brunswick Archives and Special Collections.

Raymond, William Odber. "The Diary of Sarah Frost." In Kingston and the Loyalists of the 'Spring Fleet' of 1783, ed. William Obder Raymond. Saint John, N.B: Barnes and Company, 1889.


Brown, Wallace. "Loyalist Historiography." Acadiensis 4, 1 (1974).

Buzek, Beatrice Ross. "'By Fortune Wounded': Loyalist Women in Nova Scotia." Nova Scotia Historical Review 7, 2 (1987).

Campbell, C. "‘To be held in All Honour’: The Weldon Collection of China and the Construction of the Loyalist Myth." Nova Scotia Historical Review 15, 1 (1995).

Coleman, Daniel. "The National Allegory of Fraternity: Loyalist Literature and the Making of Canada’s White British Origins." Journal of Canadian Studies 36, 3 (2001).

Condon, Ann Gorman. "The Family in Exile: Loyalist Social Values after the Revolution." In Intimate Relations: Family and Community in Planter Nova Scotia, 1759-1800, ed. Margaret Conrad. Fredericton: Acadiensis Press, 1995.

Condon, Ann Gorman. "Loyalist Style and the Culture of the Atlantic Seaboard." Material History Bulletin/Bulletin d'histoire de la culture matérielle 25 (Spring 1987).

Conrad, Margaret. "'Sundays always make me think of home,': Time and Place in Canadian Women's History." In Not Just Pin Money: Selected Essays on the History of Women's Work in British Columbia, eds. Barbara K. Latham and Roberta J. Pazdro. Victoria: Camosun College, 1984.

Davidson, Stephen. "A Calamitous Situation: The Story of Polly Jarvis Dibblee." The New Brunswick Reader, Telegraph-Journal, 9 September 2006.

Davies, Gwen. "Researching Eighteenth-Century Maritime Women Writers: Deborah How Cottnam – A Case Study." In Working in Women's Archives: Researching Women's Private Literature and Archival Documents, eds. Helen M. Buss and Marlene Kadar. Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2001.

Davies, Gwen. "Consolation to Distress: Loyalist Literary Activities in the Maritimes." Acadiensis 24, 2 (1987).

Davies, Gwen. "The Diary of Sarah Frost, 1783: The Sounds and Silences of a Woman's Exile." Papers of the Bibliographical Society of Canada 42, 2 (2004).

Fingerhut, E. R. "Uses and Abuses of American Loyalists’ Claims: A Critique of Quantitative Analysis." William and Mary Quarterly 25, 2 (1968).

Fisher, Robert C. "‘The Grandmother’s Story’: Oral Tradition, Family Memory, and a Mysterious Manuscript." Archivaria 57 (Spring 2004).

Godfrey, William. "Loyalist Studies in the Maritimes: Past and Future Directions." London Journal of Canadian Studies 9 (1993).

MacKinnon, Neil. "A Dearth of Miracles: Governor John Parr and the Settling of Loyalists in Nova Scotia, 1783-1791." Nova Scotia Historical Review 15, 1 (1995).

MacLeod, D. Peter. "Hannah Ingraham. Loyalist Refugee." Canadian Military History 12, 1-2 (Spring 2003).

MacNutt, W. S. "Fanning’s Regime in on Prince Edward Island." Acadiensis 1, 1 (1971).

MacNutt, W. S. "The Loyalists: A Sympathetic View." Acadiensis 6, 1 (1976).

Morgan, Robert J. "The Loyalists of Cape Breton." Dalhousie Review 55, 1 (1975).

Murray, Barkley. "The Loyalist Tradition in New Brunswick." Acadiensis 4, 2 (Spring 1975).

Norton, Mary Beth. "Eighteenth-Century American Women in Peace and War: The Case of the Loyalists." The William and Mary Quarterly 33, 3 (1976).

Palmer, Alcy M. "The Furnishings of the Loyalist House." New Brunswick Historical Society Collections 22 (1985).

Purdy, Jud. "‘Where all the Children were United Empire Loyalists’: Schooling in Saint John, N.B., in the 1930s and 1940s." Historical Studies in Education 18, 1 (2006).

Roetger, R. W. and C. Wetherell. "Another Look at the Loyalists of Shelburne, NS, 1783-1795." Canadian Historical Review 70, 1 (1995).

Shelton, W. G. "The United Empire Loyalists: A Reconsideration." Dalhousie Review 45, 1 (1965).

Smith, P. H. "The American Loyalists: Notes on Their Organization and Numerical Strength." William and Mary Quarterly 25, 2 (1968).

Stewart, Ian. "New Myths for Old: The Loyalists and Maritime Political Culture." Journal of Canadian Studies 25, 2 (1990).

Taylor, Jennifer. "Loyalist Women: 'Ripped from their Homes'." The Loyalist Gazette 22 (September 2004).

Wright, Esther Clark. "The Evacuation of the Loyalists from New York in 1783." Nova Scotia Historical Review 4, 1 (1984).

Wright, Wayne. "Look Homeward, Angel – The Shaping of the Loyalist Mind." Loyalist Gazette 24 (June 1986).


The Loyalist Guide: Nova Scotian Loyalists and Their Documents. Prepared by the Public Archives of Nova Scotia. . [Halifax, N.S.]: Public Archives of Nova Scotia, [1983].

Albert, Ronald Hoffman and Peter J. Albert, eds. Women in the Age of the American Revolution. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1989.

Allen, Robert S. The Loyal Americans: The Military Role of the Loyalist Provincial Corps and Their Settlement in British North America, 1775–1784. Ottawa: National Museums, 1983.

Antliff, W. Bruce. Loyalist Settlements, 1783-1789: New Evidence of Canadian Loyalist Claims. Research and transcription by W. Bruce Antliff. . Toronto: Archives of Ontario, 1985.

Barnes, T. M., R. M. Cohoon, and G. A. Rawlyk, eds. Loyalists and Community in North America. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Barnett, Cleadie B., and Elizabeth S. Sewell. Loyalist Families. Fredericton: Fredericton Branch, United Empire Loyalists' Association of Canada, 1983.

Bell, David G. Early Loyalist Saint John: The Origin of New Brunswick Politics, 1783-1786. Fredericton: New Ireland Press, 1983.

Blakeley, P. R. and J. N. Grant, eds. Eleven Exiles: Accounts of Loyalists in the American Revolution. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1882.

Brown, Wallace. The Good Americans: The Loyalists in the American Revolution. New York: William and Morrow & Co., 1969.

Brown, Wallace. The King’s Friends: The Composition and Motives of the American Loyalist Claimants. Providence: Brown University Press, 1965.

Bumsted, J. M. Land, Settlement, and Politics on Eighteenth-Century Prince Edward Island. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1987.

Bumsted, J. M. Understanding the Loyalists. Sackville, NB: Mount Allison University, 1986.

Calhoon, R. M., ed. The Loyalist Perception and Other Essays. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1989.

Calhoon, R. M. The Loyalists in Revolutionary America, 1760-1781. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1973.

Carey, Catherine S. The Price of Loyalty: Tory Writings from the Revolutionary Era. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1973.

Condon, Ann Gorman. The Envy of the American States: The Loyalist Dream for New Brunswick. Fredericton: New Ireland Press, 1984.

Cuthbertson, Brian. The Loyalist Governor: Biography of Sir John Wentworth. Halifax: Pethric Press, 1983.

Dallison, Robert. Hope Restored: The American Revolution and the Founding of New Brunswick. Fredericton: Goose Lane Editions and New Brunswick Military Heritage Project, 2003.

Davidson, Stephen. The Burdens of Loyalty: Refugee Stories from the First American Civil War. Saint John, NB: Trinity Enterprises, Inc., 2008.

Dickenson, Harry T., ed. British Pamphlets on the American Revolution, 1763-1785: Volume 1: 1763-1766. London: Pickering & Chatto, 2007.

Dickenson, Harry T., ed. British Pamphlets on the American Revolution, 1763-1785: Volume 2: 1766-1774. London: Pickering & Chatto, 2007.

Dickenson, Harry T., ed. British Pamphlets on the American Revolution, 1763-1785: Volume 3: 1774-1775. London: Pickering & Chatto, 2007.

Dickenson, Harry T., ed. British Pamphlets on the American Revolution, 1763-1785: Volume 4: 1775-1776. London: Pickering & Chatto, 2007.

Dubeau, Sharon. New Brunswick Loyalists: A Bicentennial Tribute. Agincourt, ON: Generation Press, 1983.

Earle, Alice Morse, ed. Colonial Dames and Good Wives. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Company, 1962.

Edelberg, C. D. Jonathan Odell: Loyalist Poet of the American Revolution. Durham: Duke University Press, 1987.

Fellows, Jo-Anne. The Loyalist Myth in Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Historical Association, 1971.

Fingard, Judith. The Anglican Design in Loyalist Nova Scotia, 1783-1816. London: SPCK, 1972.

Flick, A. Loyalism in New York during the American Revolution. New York: Columbia University Press, 1901.

Hast, A. Loyalism in Revolutionary Virginia: The Norfolk Area and the Eastern Shore. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1982.

Kerber, Linda K. Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1980.

Knowles, Norman. Inventing the Loyalists: The Ontario Loyalist Tradition and the Creation of a Usable Past. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997.

Lambert, R. S. South Carolina Loyalists in the American Revolution. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1897.

Leyden, S. K. Crimes and Controversies: Law and Society in Loyalist Saint John. Saint John: The Saint John Law Society, 1987.

Light, Beth and Alison Prentice, eds. Pioneer and Gentlewomen of British North America, 1713-1867. Toronto: New Hogtown Press, 1980.

MacKinnon, Neil. This Unfriendly Soil: The Loyalist Experience in Nova Scotia, 1783-1791. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1986.

McKenna, Katherine Mary Jean. A Life of Propriety: Anne Murray Powell and Her Family. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1994.

Moore, Christopher. The Loyalists, Revolution, Exile, Settlement. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1984.

Morden, Mrs U. E. Loyalist Women. An address delivered before General Brock Lodge, "Daughters of the Empire," by Mrs. Morden, Brockville, 21 October 1902. : Goodwin-Haines Collection. Series: Goodwin-Haines Pamphlets.

Mowat, Grace. The Diverting History of a Loyalist Town : a Portrait of St. Andrews, New Brunswick. Fredericton: Brunswick Press, 1953.

New Brunswick Historical Society. Loyalist Souvenir: One Hundred and Fiftieth Anniversary of the Landing of the Loyalists in the Province of New Brunswick, 1783-1933. Saint John, 1933.

New, M. C. Maryland Loyalists in the American Revolution. Centreville, MD: Tidewater Publishers, 1996.

Norton, Mary Beth. Liberty's Daughters: The Revolutionary Experience of American Women, 1750-1800. Toronto: Little, Brown and Company, 1980.

Norton, Mary Beth. The British Americans: The Loyalist Exiles in England, 1774-1789. Toronto: Little, Brown and Co., 1972.

Ousterhoust, A. M. A State Divided: Opposition in Pennsylvania to the American Revolution. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1897.

Palmer, G. Biographical Sketches of Loyalists of the American Revolution. Westport: Meckler Publishing, 1984.

Potter, Janice. The Liberty We Seek: Loyalist Ideology in Colonial New York and Massachusetts. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1983.

Potter-MacKinnon, Janice. While the Women Only Wept: Loyalist Refugee Women. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1993.

Ranlet, P. The New York Loyalists. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1986/2002.

Ranlet, P. The New York Loyalists. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1986/2002.

Raymond, W. O. The Ancestry of the Family of William Odber Raymond, A.D. 1630-1920. Prepared and indexed by R.W. Hale, 1983. Toronto, 1920.

Raymond, William Odber, ed. Winslow Papers A.D. 1776-1826. Saint John: New Brunswick Historical Society, 1901.

Robertson, Marion. King's Bounty: A History of Early Shelburne, Nova Scotia. Halifax: Nova Scotia Museum Press, 1983.

Robinson, Charlotte Gourlay. Pioneer Profiles of New Brunswick Settlers. Belleville, ON.: Mika Pub. Co., 1980.

Sabine, L. Biographical Sketches of Loyalists of the American Revolution, with an Historical Essay. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1864.

Stewart, Walter. True Blue: The Loyalist Legend. Toronto: Collins, 1985.

Troxler, C. W. The Loyalist Experience in North Carolina. Raleigh: North Carolina Dept. of Cultural Resources, Division of Archives and History, 1976.

Tulloch, Elspeth. We, the Undersigned: A Historical Overview of New Brunswick Women's Political and Legal Status, 1784-1984. Moncton: New Brunswick Advisory Council on the Status of Women, 1985.

United Empire Loyalist Association,Kawartha Branch. Hearth and Home: 1784-2000. Winnipeg, Manitoba: L. Rasmussen Co., Ltd., 2000.

Van Buskirk, Judith L. Generous Enemies: Patriots and Loyalists in the American Revolution. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002.

Vesey, Maude Maxwell. Manuscript Biography of Edward Winslow..niversity of New Brunswick Archives and Special Collections, [1934?].

Wood-Holt, B. Early Marriage Records of New Brunswick: Saint John City and County from the British Conquest to 1839. Saint John, N.B: Holland House, 1986.

Wright, Esther Clark. The Loyalists of New Brunswick. Fredericton, 1955.

Newspaper articles

Davidson, Stephen. "A Calamitous Situation: The Story of Polly Jarvis Dibblee." The New Brunswick Reader, Telegraph-Journal, 9 September 2006.


Kilburn, Jane Ellen. "The Winslow Sisters: Seven Colonial Women." MA, University of New Brunswick, 1995.

McKenna, Katherine Mary Jean. "Treading the Hard Road: Some Women Loyalists and the American Revolution." MA, Queen's University, 1979.

Troxler, C. W. "The Migration of Carolina and Georgia Loyalists to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick." PhD, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, 1974.

Wilson, Marcelle R. "Loyalists: Economic, Gendered, and Racial Minorities Acting Politically for King and Country." PhD, West Virginia University, 2003.


"A Question of Loyalties." Canada, a People’s History. 2000. Canada Broadcasting Corporation. DVD.

Escape to Nova Scotia. 51 min. 1998. Learning Resources and Technology. VHS.

Loyalties. 50 min. 1998. Ziji Productions and the National Film Board of Canada. VHS.

A Midwife's Tale. 90 min. 1998. Public Broadcasting Services. DVD.

The World Turned Upside Down. 24 min. 1985. National Film Board of Canada. VHS.

Fields of Endless Day. 58 min. 1978. National Film Board of Canada. VHS.


Baxter, Jean Rae. The Way Lies North. Vancouver: Ronsdale Press, 2007.

Bradford, Karleen. With Nothing But Our Courage: The Loyalist Diary of Mary MacDonald. Toronto: Scholastic Canada Ltd., 2002.

Brummel Crook, Connie. The Hungry Year. Toronto: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 2001.

Brummel Crook, Connie. Meyers' Creek. Toronto: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1995.

Brummel Crook, Connie. Flight. Toronto: Fitzhenry and Whiteside, 1991.

Downie, Mary Alice, and John Downie. Honor Bound. Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1971/1981.

Fillmore, Cathleen. The Life of a Loyalist: A Tale of Survival in Old Nova Scotia. Canmore: Altitude Publishing, 2004.

Forbes, Esther. Johnny Tremain. New York: Dell, 1943/1975.

Fryer, Mary Beacock. Escape: Adventures of a Loyalist Family. Toronto: Dundurn, 2006.

Kirkpatrick, Katherine. Redcoats and Petticoats. New York: Holiday House, 1999.

Kositsky, Lynne. Rachael: A Mighty Big Imagining. Toronto: Penguin, 2001.

Lunn, Janet. Charlotte. Toronto: Tundra Books, 1999.

Lunn, Janet. The Hollow Tree. Toronto: Seal Books, 1997/2001.

O'Dell, Scott. Sarah Bishop. New York: Scholastic Book Services, 1982.

Raddall, Thomas. His Majesty’s Yankees. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, [1942]/1977.

Smyth, Donna. Loyalist Runaway. Halifax: Formac, 1989.